There is increasing recognition of the importance of the distinction between efficacy and effectiveness research in the design, conduct, and evaluation of interventions and program outcomes. There is a concurrent increase in the application of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. These two lines of inquiry are only beginning to meet. There is an emerging need for systematic reviews and meta-analyses to account for differences in degrees to which included studies reflect either efficacy and effectiveness designs. Based on on-going work on a formal systematic review of the hepatitis C virus care continuum, this paper describes and discusses the rationale for, and how the PRECIS-II instrument can be used on, and modestly adapted to, studies included in the systematic review examining the extent to which studies include elements of efficacy or effectiveness, or a combination of the two. We also highlight that use of such an instrument may have general applicability to and value in the conduct of systematic reviews and meta-analysis.
Use of the PRECIS-II instrument to categorize reports along the efficacy-effectiveness spectrum in an hepatitis C virus care continuum systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 93, 66-75. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.10.015. PMCID: PMC5767157.